Like can someone get a physical address without going to authorities or hacking?
Unknown: As an example, my IP address is to somewhere about 20 miles away from here. They'd need to do an awful amount of work and persuade the company that supplies my internet to tell them where I live and they'd need a court order to do that!
Only if you have the expertise and software to do so. For most people this isn't worth their time or money. Your IP address is only an approximate location of your computer location. My IP address shows my location to be about 15 miles from my actual location. So don't worry about someone getting your street address from knowing your IP address.
You can ping a person's up and isolate their state and city but no a person can't get it via the IP without the police.
That didn't mean a hacker can't get into your computer and look in your documents and auto fill form information and get your address and phone # in 30 seconds!!!
For public IP addresses – NO.
For private addresses the answer can be yes. For example 192.168.1.128 for me is upstairs in my home office.
In the generic case, no. You can get close, but not accurate and definitive. But often, "close" and other clues is quite good enough.
With a court order they can.
No, but they can track you down.