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Yes, you can format a drive and start over, provided the error is not caused by something physical, like a head crash on a HDD. The problem is that you may, or may not, be able to tell it is a hardware error and not just a glitch in the system, until you do try and reformat the drive.
Yes. The device can be formatted which will delete all files in the SSD or HDD so the space is freed up to receive new data files. You can try to delete the individual corrupted file(s) in order to try and save information that wasn't backed up on other media.
Yes as long as the corruption is not due to a physical problem with the drive
That's is one of the main reasons you would want to format.
Yes you can overnight the disk format it then reinstall windows
usually, unless the drive is damaged
Sure, you just format it and use again ,
Yes, just format it and use afresh.