Does the language provide everything for the programmer? Let's say a web developer wants to implement a very specific feature into their website. How would they go about approaching it?
Alison: A laccolith.
Laccoliths are a type of intrusive igneous formation, also called "plutonic formations" or "igneous intrusions". This means that they were formed as magma cooled beneath the surface. With laccoliths the magma moves into an area beneath the ground, causing the overlying rock layers to dome upward. After the magma crystallizes into solid rock, it is exposed as the less durable rock above erodes away.
Because of this, it is often difficult to determine what it is that you're looking at. For instance, Devil's Tower in Wyoming was thought to be a volcanic neck, but further study has show it to be an eroded laccolith.
How do you write a question or email to say something new on a topic you have never written before?
Usually some business owner has some 'requirements', then they discuss things so the programmer then understands the problem.
Often they then make a prototype for the business owner to reject. Several iterations of this, and a new feature is the result.
There is no 'one' language which is capable of doing everything. It's for this reason that we have plugin's, addons, modules, frameworks and API's. Where each language falls short in it's own right, there will be another which can achieve the desired outcome. For websites, the foundation code with functions and operations is managed in HTML while the styling and images are handled by CSS. Furthermore java, flash or activeX are responsible for video playback, downloads and user interaction.
There are lots of sites out there dedicated to making webdesign "code free" essentially creating a UI with drag and drop elements which are adaptive and interpretive with the coding happening 'organically' as the user adjusts their site layout, color and content.
A programming language is complete if it provides the ability to have sequences, decisions, loops, and function calls, however, a function call is only a syntactic element.
object.function_name (argument list)
The language itself doesn't have to provide the library of functions, although, most, if not all, provide a list of "built-in" functions that can be minimal or extensive.
If you buy a device that plugs into the computer, it will come with a library of functions that are needed to operate the device.
Aside from that, your question is like, "How does a builder know how to create a Lego sculpture that has never been made before?" You understand how to put the pieces together, but someone either has the talent of they don't.
How would you change a light bulb if you never did it before? How does a child beat a video game if they never played it before? How do you use a tool if you never used it before?
You look at the problem and figure our a way to solve it. You have a mind, use it! You have access to the internet, google your problem, and see if there are things similar to what you want to accomplish and see how they did it, and then write what you need.