How data is added to physical objects like hard disks, RAM, ROM, processor etc.?

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Like suppose u have silicon or metal etc u shape it like a hard disk or whatever. But, now how do u add data and make it able to store data n info. N how do u give the ability to perform calculations to a piece of metal/silicon (i.e processor or calculator)?

Other answer:

That question requires a complex answer which I may not be able to satisfy since I am not a physicist/electrical engineer by profession , but here is my attempt.

The platter of a harddisk is made out of a ferromagnetic material. The surface of the platter is divided into discrete units called sectors. Each sector is capable of holding some amount of data, usually 512 bytes.

There is a read/write head which resides very close to the surface of the platter and is able to swivel. The platter itself is rotating at some angular velocity.

When we write something to a harddrive, the head moves over the surface to where it wants to write. when it does so, a current is passed through the write head, which induces a magnetic field which then changes the structure of that ferromagnetic material so that the material has a certain orientation, which itself produces a magnetic field.

When we read from the harddrive, the head again passes over the surface. As it moves over the surface, the magnetic fields created by the ferromagnetic structure induces a current in the head. By the direction of the induced current, we can know the orientation of the magnetic field, and we can then derive the individual bits from this data.

Now, memory such as Dynamic RAM is made up from capacitors and transistors. There is one capacitor for each bit of memory, so a 1GB RAM module has over 8 billion capacitor/transistor pairs.
When we write some data to RAM, each cell can either represent a 1, or a 0. When we write a 1 to a cell, the transistor is allowed to conduct, and its pair capacitor is holding a charge. When we write a 0, the transistor is not conducting and its pair capacitor holds no charge.
When we want to read from the module, we simply see if there is a charge in each cell.
The problem with this approach is that the capacitors do leak, so they have to be refreshed once in a while, well thousands of times a second I believe. Also, when power is lost, the stored memory is quickly lost.
Of course, the process is much complex since the controller needs to know which memory address its reading writing to, but at the most basic level, data is stored in capacitors.

Well, I probably won't be able to explain how a CPU works very well besides saying that it uses many transistors in order to do work. Each transistor operates at the bit level, 1s and 0s if you will. Everything from here on will depend on the individual processor type and its respective instruction set.

Hard disk drives store data by magnetizing a magnetic material on a spinning disk. RAM stores data using either transistors or capacitors or both. ROM typically stores data using either semiconductors, bipolar technology, MOS transistors, etc.

You give the processor the ability to perform calculations by designing and implementing the computer logic to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, shifting, branching, loading data from memory, storing data to memory, etc. You can then load a program (list of software instructions) to a computer's memory and the processor will execute it. The ability for it to perform the calculations such as addition or subtraction is programmed into the hardware units of the processor (more specifically the arithmetic logic unit).

picture a hd drive disk as a series of switches. for a tara-bite drive it would be 8 trillion of them + or – one or 2. The hard rive merely reads or writes ( switches on or off ) these switches. when reading them it places there pattern of on off positions (0 or 1) within RAM memory this is the Random access memory which is used as the actual work area of the computer. the hard drive stores the switch pattern the ram reads the copy of the stored data and changes it where it is able to according to the operating system or program designed instructions as to weather certain areas within ram with falls under memory management in the OS. the software is designed to move through the switches and determine if they are on or off….Binary computer language.
if a series of switches a bite of switches, 1 switch being a bit, 8 bits being a bite as this is old info the naming of bites and words can be more extensive in numbers now for instance 64bit could = a bite now?
computer language is native or Binary
the lowest form of interpitted language is assembly language programing I believe.
ROM memory is read only memory the series of switches are set and locked. was used for bios as computers developed they replaced the ROM bios chips with a standard which includes areas of RAM flash memory which will not change when powered down but can be manipulated with updates which is the basis for the solid state drive which is that type of RAM memory.
Saghir Kalwar:
they use MAGNETISM